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The output for a show interface will look like this:. The show interface output may show the interface as being administratively down:. Administratively down merely means that the interface has been configured with the command shutdown. This is the default state of any router interface when the router is booted for the very first time. To remedy this, use the interface configuration command no shutdown.
This state indicates that the interface has been configured as the backup for another interface. When a connection requires redundancy in case of failure, a dialer interface can be set up as the backup. This is accomplished by adding the following commands to the primary connection's interface:. The surest way to route packets to a dialer interface is with static routing.
These routes are manually entered into the configuration of the router or access server with the command:. This argument is used in floating static routes. Static routes are used in situations where the dial link is the only connection to the remote site. A static route has an administrative distance value of one 1 , which makes it preferred over dynamic routes to the same destination.
On the other hand, floating static routes - that is, static routes with a pre-defined administrative distance - are typically used in backup DDR scenarios. The static route causes packets to be routed across the dial line, even if the primary is up and capable of passing traffic.
If, however, the static route is configured with an administrative distance higher than that of any of the dynamic routing protocols in use on the router, the floating static route will only be used in the absence of a "better" route - one with a lower administrative distance. If Backup DDR is being invoked by use of the backup interface command, the situation is somewhat different. Because the dialer interface remains in standby mode while the primary is up , a static route or a floating static route may be configured.
For a given connection, the number of static or floating static routes necessary is a function of the addressing on the dialer interfaces. In cases where the two dialer interfaces one on each of the two routers share a common network or subnet, typically only one static route is required. It points to the remote LAN using the address of the remote router's dialer interface as the next-hop address.
Example 2: Dial is the only connection using unnumbered interfaces. This can be configured with just one route, but it is common to configure two routes: a host-route to the LAN interface on the remote router and a route to the remote LAN via the remote LAN interface. This is done to prevent Layer3-to-Layer2 mapping problems, which can result in encapsulation failures.
This method is also used if the dialer interfaces on the two devices are numbered, but not in the same network or subnet. Example 3: Dial is a backup connection using numbered interfaces. One floating static route is required. Example 4: Dial is a backup connection using unnumbered interfaces. As in Example 2 above, this method is also used if the dialer interfaces on the two devices are numbered, but not in the same network or subnet. Dialer Map-based Legacy DDR is powerful and comprehensive, but its limitations affect scaling and extensibility.
Dialer Map-based DDR is based on a static binding between the per-destination call specification and the physical interface configuration. When configuring an interface for outbound calling, one dialer map must be configured for each remote destination, and for each different called number at the remote destination.
The order in which dialer maps are configured can be important. If two or more dialer map commands refer to the same remote address, the router or access server will try them one after another, in order, until a it successfully establishes a connection. Note: IOS can dynamically build dialer maps on a router receiving a call. The dialer map is built based on the authenticated username and the negotiated IP address of the caller.
Dynamic dialer maps can only be seen in the output of the command show dialer map. You cannot view them in the running configuration of the router or access server. All options are shown in this first form of the command. To delete a particular dialer map entry, use a no form of this command.
Use the following form of the dialer map command to configure a serial interface or ISDN interface to support bridging. Use the following form of the dialer map command to configure an asynchronous interface to place a call to:. Use one of the following: appletalk , bridge , clns , decnet , ip , ipx , novell , snapshot , vines , or xns.
This argument is not used with the bridge protocol keyword. Used for authenticating the remote system on incoming calls. Used for ISDN only. The default speed is 64 kbps. The dial string and ISDN subaddress, if used, must be the last item in the command line. Note: In this section the term "dialer interface" refers to the configured interface; not to a physical interface on the router or access server. Dialer Profiles also allows the logical and physical configurations to be bound together dynamically on a per-call basis.
Dialer Profiles allow the configuration of physical interfaces to be separated from the logical configuration required for a call, and they also allow the logical and physical configurations to be bound together dynamically on a per-call basis. A Dialer Profile consists of the following elements:.
A Dialer interface a logical entity configuration, including one or more dial strings each of which is used to reach one destination subnetwork. A dialer map class that defines all the characteristics for any call to the specified dial string. An ordered dialer pool of physical interfaces to be used by the dialer interface.
A Dialer interface configuration includes all settings needed to reach a specific destination subnetwork and any networks reached through it. Multiple dial strings can be specified for the same Dialer interface; each dial string can be associated with a different dialer map class. The dialer map-class defines all the characteristics for any call to the specified dial string.
For example, the map-class for one destination might specify a kbps ISDN speed. The map-class for a different destination might specify a kbps ISDN speed. Each Dialer interface uses a dialer pool, which is a pool of physical interfaces ordered on the basis of the priority assigned to each physical interface. A physical interface can belong to multiple dialer pools, with contention being resolved by priority.
A channel reserved by a dialer pool remains idle until traffic is directed to the pool. When Dialer Profiles are used to configure DDR, a physical interface has no configuration settings except encapsulation and the dialer pools to which the interface belongs.
Note: The preceding paragraph has one exception. Figure shows a typical application of dialer profiles. Router A has dialer interface 1 for dial-on-demand routing with subnetwork 1. The IP address for dialer interface 1 is its address as a node in network 1. At the same time, that IP address serves as the IP address of the physical interfaces used by the dialer interface 1. Similarly, the IP address for dialer interface 2 is its address as a node in network 2.
A dialer interface uses only one dialer pool. A physical interface, however, can be a member of one or many dialer pools, and a dialer pool can have several physical interfaces as members. Figure illustrates the relations among the concepts of dialer interface, dialer pool, and physical interfaces. Dialer interface 0 uses dialer pool 2. Physical interface BRI 1 belongs to dialer pool 2 and has a specific priority in the pool. Physical interface BRI 2 also belongs to dialer pool 2.
Because contention is resolved on the basis of priority-levels of the physical interfaces in the pool, BRI 1 and BRI 2 have to be assigned different priorities in the pool. Perhaps BRI 1 is assigned priority and BRI 2 is assigned priority 50 in dialer pool 2 a priority of 50 is higher than a priority of BRI 2 has a higher priority in the pool, and its calls will be placed first.
The Point-to-Point Protocol PPP is far and away the most common link-layer transport protocol, having completely usurped SLIP as the protocol of choice for dial and in many cases, non-dial synchronous and asynchronous serial connections. An online repository of RFCs can be found at:. The Point-to-Point Protocol PPP provides a standard method for transporting multi-protocol datagrams over point-to-point links. PPP is comprised of three main components:. Each proceeds in order, following the establishment of the async or ISDN connection.
All connections are peer-to-peer. Therefore, when there is a caller and a receiver, both ends of the point-to-point connection must agree on the negotiated protocols and parameters. After the successful completion of LCP negotiation and reaching an agreement on AuthProto, the next step is authentication. Authentication, while not mandatory per RFC, is highly recommended on all dial connections.
In some instances, it is a requirement for proper operation; Dialer Profiles being a case in point. PAP is the simpler of the two, but is less secure because the plain-text password is sent across the dial connection. CHAP is more secure because the plain-text password is not ever sent across the dial connection.
When discussing authentication, it is helpful to use the terms "requester" and "authenticator" to distinguish the roles played by the devices at either end of the connection, though either peer can act in either role. It is common for both peers to act in both roles when a DDR connection is being made between routers. PAP is fairly simple. CHAP is somewhat more complicated.
The authenticator sends a challenge to the requester, which then responds with a value. This value is calculated by using a "one-way hash" function to hash the challenge and the CHAP password together. The resulting value is sent to the authenticator along with the requester's CHAP hostname which may be different from its actual hostname in a response message. The authenticator reads the hostname in the response message, looks up the expected password for that hostname, and then calculates the value it expects the requester sent in its response by performing the same hash function the requester performed.
If the resulting values match, the authentication is successful. Failure should lead to a disconnect. After successful authentication, the NCP phase begins. One or more of these protocols may be negotiated. Other pertinent RFCs include, but are not limited to:. Cisco TAC engineers will usually advise that the command no cdp enable be configured on any and all dialer interfaces to prevent CDP packets keeping a call up indefinitely.
The key element negotiated in IPCP is each peer's address. Each of the peers is in one of two possible states; either it has an IP address or it does not. Other options may be negotiated in IPCP. At the same time it provides multi-vendor interoperability, packet fragmentation and proper sequencing, and load calculation on both inbound and outbound traffic. Multilink PPP allows packets to be fragmented. These fragments can be sent at the same time over multiple point-to-point links to the same remote address.
The multiple links come up in response to a dialer load threshold that you define. The load can be calculated on inbound traffic, outbound traffic, or on either, as needed for the traffic between the specific sites. Multilink PPP works over the following interface types single or multiple which are configured to support both dial-on-demand rotary groups and PPP encapsulation:.
At some point, however, adding more asynchronous interfaces does not improve performance. However, packets might be dropped occasionally if the MTU is small or if large bursts of short frames occur. If you do not use PPP authentication procedures, your telephone service must pass caller ID information. A load threshold number is required.
When Multilink PPP is configured and you want a multilink bundle to be connected indefinitely, use the dialer idle-timeout command to set a very high idle timer. The dialer-load threshold 1 command does not keep a multilink bundle of n links connected indefinitely, and the dialer-load threshold 2 command does not keep a multilink bundle of two links connected indefinitely.
You then configure the BRIs separately and add them each to the same rotary group. Use the dialer rotary-group command to assign each of the ISDN BRIs to that dialer rotary group which must match the number of the Dialer interface number 0 in this case. Multilink PPP provides the capability of splitting and recombining packets to a single end-system across a logical pipe also called a bundle formed by multiple links. Multichassis Multilink PPP MMP , on the other hand, provides the additional capability for links to terminate at multiple routers with different remote addresses.
MMP can also handle both analog and digital traffic. This functionality is intended for situations in which there are large pools of dial-in users, in which a single access server cannot provide enough dial-in ports. MMP allows companies to provide a single dialup number to its users and to apply the same solution to analog and digital calls. To locate documentation of other commands that appear in this chapter, use the command reference master index or search online.
Routers or access servers are configured to belong to groups of peers, called stack groups. All members of the stack group are peers; stack groups do not need a permanent lead router. Once a connection is established with one member of a stack group , that member owns the call. If a second call comes in from the same client and a different router answers the call, the router establishes a tunnel and forwards all packets belonging to the call to the router that owns the call.
The process of establishing a tunnel and forwarding calls through it to the router that owns the call is sometimes called projecting the PPP link to the call master. If a more powerful router is available, it can be configured as a member of the stack group and the other stack group members can establish tunnels and forward all calls to it.
In such a case, the other stack group members are just answering calls and forwarding traffic to the more powerful offload router. Note: High-latency WAN lines between stack group members can make stack group operation inefficient. MMP call handling, bidding, and Layer 2 forwarding operations in the stack group proceed as follows. It is also shown in Figure In the bidding, Router A wins because it already has the call. Router A becomes the call-master for that session with the remote device.
Router A might also be called the host to the master bundle interface. When the remote device that initiated the call needs more bandwidth, it makes a second Multilink PPP call to the group. When the second call comes in, Router D answers it and informs the stack group. Router A wins the bidding because it already is handling the session with that remote device. If more calls come in to Router D and they too belong to Router A, the tunnel between A and D enlarges to handle the added traffic.
Router D does not establish an additional tunnel to A. If more calls come in and are answered by any other router, that router also establishes a tunnel to A and forwards the raw PPP data. The re-assembled data is passed on the corporate network as if it had all come through one physical link. In contrast to the previous figure, Figure features an offload router. Access servers that belong to a stack group answer calls, establish tunnels, and forward calls to a Cisco router that wins the bidding and is the call-master for all the calls.
The Cisco re-assembles and re-sequences all the packets coming in through the stack group. Note: You can build stack groups using different access server, switching, and router platforms. This should only be done with access servers such as the 4x00 platform. Because calls from the central office are allocated in an arbitrary way, this combination could result in an analog call being delivered to a digital-only access server, which would not be able to handle the call.
MMP support on a group of routers requires that each router be configured to support the following:. Virtual Profiles is a unique Point-to-Point Protocol PPP application that can create and configure a virtual access interface dynamically when a dial-in call is received, and tear down the interface dynamically when the call ends. The configuration information for a Virtual Profiles virtual access interface can come from a virtual template interface, or from user-specific configuration stored on an authentication, authorization, and accounting AAA server, or both.
However, Per-User Configuration uses network configuration such as access lists and route filters downloaded during NCP negotiations. Two rules govern virtual access interface configuration by Virtual Profiles virtual template interfaces and AAA configurations:. Each virtual access application can have, at most, one template from which to clone.
When Virtual Profiles is configured by virtual template, its template has higher priority than any other virtual template. See the "Interoperability with Other Cisco Dial Features" section below for a description of the possible configuration sequences that depend on the presence or absence by MLP or another virtual access feature that clones a virtual template interface. To locate documentation of other commands that appear in this chapter, you can use the command reference master index or search online.
This section presents background information about Virtual Profiles to help you understand this application before you start to configure it. We recommend that unnumbered addresses be used in virtual template interfaces to ensure that duplicate network addresses are not created on virtual access interfaces.
For example, the line might be the following:. Use of a virtual template interface with Virtual Profiles requires a virtual template to be defined specifically for Virtual Profiles. Virtual Profiles fully interoperates with physical interfaces in the following DDR configuration states when no other virtual access interface application is configured:.
Dialer Profiles are configured for the interface. The dialer profile is used instead of the Virtual Profiles configuration. Note: If a dialer interface is used including any ISDN dialer , its configuration is used on the physical interface instead of the Virtual Profiles configuration. As shown in table , the exact configuration of a virtual access interface depends on the following three factors:.
The presence or absence of MLP. The column label "MLP" is a stand-in for any virtual access feature that supports MLP and clones from a virtual template interface. The order of items in any cell of the table is important. The user-specific AAA interface configuration adds to the configuration and overrides any conflicting physical interface or virtual template configuration commands.
Virtual Profiles also interoperates with virtual access applications that clone a virtual template interface. Each virtual access application can have, at most, one template from which to clone, but can clone from multiple AAA configurations. If Virtual Profiles is enabled and a virtual template is defined for it, the Virtual Profiles virtual template is used.
If Virtual Profiles is configured by AAA alone no virtual template is defined for Virtual Profiles , the virtual template for another virtual access application VPDN, for example can be cloned onto the virtual access interface. AV pair : A configuration parameter on an AAA server; part of the user configuration that the AAA server sends to the router, in response to user-specific authorization requests. The virtual template is the source of the generic user information and router-dependent information.
The result of cloning is a virtual access interface configured with all the commands in the template. Virtual access interfaces can be created and configured differently by different applications, such as Virtual Profiles and virtual private dialup networks. This takes the form of a list of Cisco IOS interface commands to be applied to the virtual interface as needed.
A specific user's virtual profile can be configured by a virtual template interface, user-specific interface configuration stored on an AAA server, or both a virtual template interface and user-specific interface configuration from AAA. Configuration of a virtual access interface begins with a virtual template interface if any , followed by application of user-specific configuration for the particular user's dial-in session if any.
Note that, while there is no timestamping in this example, it is usually recommended that you use the global configuration command service timestamps debug datetime msec. These debugs are taken from Montecito ; however, the debugging on Goleta would look much the same. Note: Your debugs may appear in a different format. T, U - A route is installed from Montecito to Goleta and protocol on the interface changes to "up", indicating that the NCP negotiations have completed successfully.
Before calling the Cisco Systems Technical Assistance Center TAC , make sure you have read through this chapter and completed the actions suggested for your system's problem. For all problems, collect the output of show running-config and show version. Ensure that the command service timestamps debug datetime msec is in the configuration. Contents Introduction. Establishing a Reverse Telnet Session to a Modem. Telnet protocol, binary mode with rotary. Modem control is not enabled on the access server or router.
Use the show line exec command on the access server or router. This indicates that modem control is enabled on the line of the access server or router. For an explanation of show line output, refer to the "Using Debug Commands" in chapter Configure the line for modem control using the modem inout line configuration command.
Modem control is now enabled on the access server. Example: The following example illustrates how to configure a line for both incoming and outgoing calls: line 5 modem inout Note: Be certain to use the modem inout command, and not the modem dialin command while the connectivity of the modem is in question.
Modem could be misconfigured or have a hung session. The modem may have a hung session. Verify parity settings. Check the cabling between the modem and the access server or router. This cabling configuration is recommended and supported by Cisco for RJ ports. These connectors are typically labeled "Modem. See the explanation of the show line command output in the section entitled "Using Debug Commands" in chapter Verify that you are using the correct cabling and that all connections are good.
Check all hardware for damage, including cabling broken wires , adapters loose pins , access server ports, and modem. See Chapter 3, "Troubleshooting Hardware and Booting Problems," for more information on hardware troubleshooting. These are the proper modem states for connections between an access server or router and a modem when there is no incoming call. Output of any other kind generally indicates a problem.
If the modem state is Ready, instead of Idle, consider the following: Modem control is not configured on the access server or router. Configure the access server or router with the modem inout line configuration command. A session exists on the line. Use the show users exec command and use the clear line privileged exec command to stop the session if desired. DSR is high. There are two possible reasons for this: Cabling problems. If your connector uses DB pin 6 and has no pin 8, you must move the pin from 6 to 8 or get the appropriate connector.
The modem configured for DCD is always high. If your software does not support modem control, you must configure the access server line to which the modem is connected with the no exec line configuration command. Clear the line with the clear line privileged exec command, initiate a reverse Telnet session with the modem, and reconfigure the modem so that DCD is high only on CD.
End the Telnet session by entering disconnect and reconfigure the access server line with the exec line configuration command. The noCTS string appears in the Modem hardware state field for one of the following four reasons: The modem is turned off. The modem is not properly connected to the access server. Check the cabling connections from the modem to the access server. The recommended cabling configuration is given earlier in this table.
The modem is not configured for hardware flow control. Use the no flowcontrol hardware line configuration command to disable hardware flow control on the access server. Then enable the hardware flow control on the modem via a reverse Telnet session. Consult your modem documentation and see the section "Establishing a Reverse Telnet Session to a Modem" earlier in this chapter. Re-enable the hardware flow control on the access server with the flowcontrol hardware line configuration command.
The modem is configured for DCD always high. Configure the access server line to which the modem is connected with the no exec line configuration command. End the Telnet session by entering disconnect. Reconfigure the access server line with the exec line configuration command. If this string appears in the Modem hardware state field, modem control is probably not enabled on the access server. Use the modem inout line configuration command to enable modem control on the line. Additional information on configuring modem control on an access server or router line is provided earlier in this table.
Calls dialing into and out of the modem. Usage - Percentage of the total system uptime that all the modems are in use. Dialup is the magic of old telephones, before there were robocalls. Get the app. Serendipitous voice chat. Dialup needs your monthly contribution. Contribute to Dialup. Email Address. Sign Up. Check your email to confirm your subscription. How does Dialup work? Automatic calls. Deeper connections. Dialup connects people in one-on-ones all over the world.
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A voice-chat app reviving the magic of talking on the phone. Connect serendipitously to the people you want to stay in touch with. Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network to establish a connection to an Internet service provider by dialing a telephone number on a conventional telephone line. Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) to establish a connection to.