The Mac's innovative graphical interface quickly attracted imitators. The most significant was Microsoft, which introduced the first version of Windows in Windows borrowed heavily from the ideas the Macintosh pioneered, and Apple sued Microsoft for stealing its ideas. Microsoft largely prevailed in a ruling. The modern iMac Rafael Fernandez. The Mac's powerful graphics capabilities, along with an affordable laser printer Apple introduced in , sparked the desktop publishing revolution.
Software like Aldus Pagemaker and Adobe Illustrator allowed designers to design documents entirely digitally for the first time. Many graphic designers became loyal Mac users. Today, Apple sells Macs in laptop and desktop formats. Apple sold almost 20 million Macs in In January , Apple was ready to introduce the Macintosh, and the company celebrated with one of the most famous ads in advertising history:.
The ad, depicting an attractive young woman rebelling against a repressive police state, was a shot at IBM, which then dominated the computer industry and had recently entered the personal computer market. To raise the money they needed to get the Apple II off the ground, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak brought in investors who wound up controlling a majority of Apple's board seats.
Steve Jobs was brilliant, but in the early s Apple's board felt — not unreasonably — he was too young and temperamental to run Apple. So in , Jobs recruited Pepsi executive John Sculley to run Apple, famously asking him "Do you want to spend the rest of your life selling sugared water, or do you want a chance to change the world?
Steve Jobs and John Sculley in Marilyn K. But they clashed frequently, and by Sculley had had enough. He convinced the board to sideline Jobs. So Jobs left to found a new computer company called NeXT. In , NeXT stopped making computers and focused on selling the company's innovative software, but the company struggled to gain traction. Apple was struggling too. The software that powered Apple's Macintosh computers were beginning to show its age. Macs no longer had a big technical advantage over cheaper PCs running Microsoft Windows.
And the sequence of executives who ran Apple in the post-Jobs era seemed increasingly baffled about what to do to regain Apple's competitive edge. A few months later, the board fired Amelio and gave Jobs control of the company though he wouldn't formally accept the title of CEO until When Steve Jobs took the reins at Apple in , the company was in tough shape.
It had a bewildering array of products, no clear strategy, and was losing tens of millions of dollars every quarter. Steve Jobs introducing the iPhone in Jobs acted decisively. Then he started work building products that became Silicon Valley legends:. All of these products were crafted by Apple's top designer, Jony Ive. Jobs found a soul mate in Ive, and would visit Ive's studios on a daily basis to discuss the designs of forthcoming products.
Jobs was a perfectionist, frequently rejecting work that wasn't up to his standards. Jobs was a genius at marketing. He marked his return to Apple with a "Think Different" ad campaign that associated Apple with unconventional thinkers such as Albert Einstein and Mahatma Gandhi. He introduced new products at keynote addresses that became major media events in their own right. And he developed a chain of Apple Stores that ensured that Apple's products would be presented in a favorable light.
Jobs was also one of the savviest negotiators in Silicon Valley. He pulled off a major coup in by convincing the "big five" record labels to allow Apple to sell their music in the iTunes Music Store, helping to cement the popularity of the iPod. Steve Jobs died of pancreatic cancer in Since then, Apple has been run by Jobs's longtime deputy, Tim Cook. Before he died, Jobs warned Cook against trying to run Apple by asking how Jobs would have handled each decision.
Cook appears to have taken that advice to heart. Tim Cook. Jobs ran Apple as if it were a small, founder-owned startup. All significant decisions flowed through Jobs. Often, if Jobs wasn't personally interested in a particular task, Apple just wouldn't do it. For example, Jobs shut down Apple's charitable giving program in and never re-started it. Jobs directly supervised Apple's mergers and acquisitions, which meant that Apple didn't acquire very many companies.
The companies Apple did acquire were invariably small, and they were absorbed into the Apple hierarchy rather than continuing to operate as separate subsidiaries. Tim Cook has taken a more conventional approach to managing Apple. Fewer decisions flow through Cook directly, which makes it possible for Apple to handle more tasks in parallel. One of Cook's first moves after taking over at Apple was to establish a matching-gifts program. He also expanded Apple's mergers and acquisitions department, giving the company the ability to consider several deals simultaneously without involving Cook in the details.
Since taking over at Apple, Tim Cook has tried to capitalize on Apple's status as the only technology company that is also a luxury brand. In , Apple purchased Beats , a company that makes high-priced headphones as well as a streaming music service. And rather than folding Beats into Apple, as Jobs would likely have done, Cook will allow it to continue operating as an independent subsidiary.
More than half of Apple's revenue comes from iPhones. Macs and iPads are also significant revenue sources. Here is the data from Apple's fiscal year, which ended on September 30, No company is better than Apple at building devices that are powerful, beautiful, and easy to use. Over the last four decades, Apple has produced some of the most beloved products in the technology industry, including the Macintosh, iPod, iPhone, and iPad.
How does Apple do it? A big factor is the distinctive approach to designing products pioneered by Steve Jobs. It helps that Apple develops so much of its technology in-house. Most technology products are highly modular—most Dell computers, for example, have chips from Intel and an operating system provided by Microsoft. Apple products are different.
Apple even sells iPhones in Apple-designed retail stores. Steve Jobs believed that this kind of vertical integration was essential to creating a great user experience. When hardware and software are designed by different companies, it's more difficult to make them work together seamlessly. Creating the whole product allows Apple designers to control every aspect of the user experience and ensure that everything lives up to Apple's exacting standards.
In , Steve Jobs called the team that created Apple's MobileMe online service to an auditorium and asked a question: "Can anyone tell me what MobileMe is supposed to do? MobileMe suffered from crippling reliability problems, and it was neither the first or the last time Apple's online services have disappointed customers.
Apple has run four online services in the last 15 years — iTools in ,. Mac in , MobileMe in , and iCloud in All have been plagued by reliability and performance issues. And when Apple replaced Google Maps for iPhone with Apple's own mapping app in , the app was widely panned by users.
Apple's poor track record at creating online services is a reflection of the same design-focused development process that allows Apple to create beautiful gadgets. The success of the lower-cost Macs and PowerBook brought increasing revenue. The magazine MacAddict named the period between and as the "first golden age" of the Macintosh. The success of Apple's lower-cost consumer models, especially the LC, also led to the cannibalization of their higher-priced machines.
To address this, management introduced several new brands, selling largely identical machines at different price points, aimed at different markets: the high-end Quadra models, the mid-range Centris line, and the consumer-marketed Performa series. This led to significant market confusion, as customers did not understand the difference between models.
The early s also saw the discontinuation of the Apple II series , which was expensive to produce, and the company felt was still taking sales away from lower-cost Macintosh models. After the launch of the LC, Apple began encouraging developers to create applications for Macintosh rather than Apple II, and authorized salespersons to direct consumers towards Macintosh and away from Apple II. Throughout this period, Microsoft continued to gain market share with its Windows graphical user interface that it sold to manufacturers of generally less expensive PC clones.
While the Macintosh was more expensive, it offered a more tightly integrated user experience, but the company struggled to make the case to consumers. Apple also experimented with a number of other unsuccessful consumer targeted products during the s, including digital cameras , portable CD audio players , speakers , video game consoles , the eWorld online service, and TV appliances.
Most notably, enormous resources were invested in the problem-plagued Newton tablet division, based on John Sculley's unrealistic market forecasts. Throughout this period, Microsoft continued to gain market share with Windows by focusing on delivering software to inexpensive personal computers, while Apple was delivering a richly engineered but expensive experience. Microsoft Corp. The major product flops and the rapid loss of market share to Windows sullied Apple's reputation, and in Sculley was replaced as CEO by Michael Spindler.
In the wake of the alliance, Apple opened up to the idea of allowing Motorola and other companies to build Macintosh clones. Over the next two years, 75 distinct Macintosh clone models were introduced. However, by Apple executives were worried that the clones were cannibalizing sales of their own high-end computers, where profit margins were highest. Hired for his reputation as a corporate rehabilitator, Amelio made deep changes, including extensive layoffs and cost-cutting.
This period was also marked by numerous failed attempts to modernize the Macintosh operating system MacOS. The original Macintosh operating system System 1 was not built for multitasking running several applications at once. The company attempted to correct this with by introducing cooperative multitasking in System 5, but the company still felt it needed a more modern approach.
On July 9, , Jobs staged a boardroom coup that resulted in Amelio's resignation after overseeing a three-year record-low stock price and crippling financial losses. The board named Jobs as interim CEO and he immediately began a review of the company's products.
On May 6, , Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer reminiscent of the original Macintosh: the iMac. The device also had a striking eardrop shape and translucent materials, designed by Jonathan Ive , who although hired by Amelio, would go on to work collaboratively with Jobs for the next decade to chart a new course the design of Apple's products. A little more than a year later on July 21, , Apple introduced the iBook , a laptop for consumers. It was the culmination of a strategy established by Jobs to produce only four products: refined versions of the Power Macintosh G3 desktop and PowerBook G3 laptop for professionals, along with the iMac desktop and iBook laptop for consumers.
Jobs felt the small product line allowed for a greater focus on quality and innovation. At around the same time, Apple also completed numerous acquisitions to create a portfolio of digital media production software for both professionals and consumers. Apple acquired of Macromedia 's Key Grip digital video editing software project which was renamed Final Cut Pro when it was launched on the retail market in April Apple renamed the program iTunes , while simplifying the user interface and adding the ability to burn CDs.
The first announcement came on March 24, , that Apple was nearly ready to release a new modern operating system, Mac OS X. The announcement came after numerous failed attempts in the early s, and several years of development. In May , the company opened its first two Apple Store retail locations in Virginia and California,   offering an improved presentation of the company's products. On October 23, , Apple debuted the iPod portable digital audio player. The product, which was first sold on November 10, , was phenomenally successful with over million units sold within six years.
In , Apple's iTunes Store was introduced. The iTunes Store quickly became the market leader in online music services, with over five billion downloads by June 19, In , Apple purchased Nothing Real for their advanced digital compositing application Shake ,  as well as Emagic for the music productivity application Logic.
The purchase of Emagic made Apple the first computer manufacturer to own a music software company. The acquisition was followed by the development of Apple's consumer-level GarageBand application. By August 7, , Apple made the transition to Intel chips for the entire Mac product line—over one year sooner than announced.
Apple's success during this period was evident in its stock price. In an article posted on Apple's website on February 6, , Jobs wrote that Apple would be willing to sell music on the iTunes Store without digital rights management DRM , thereby allowing tracks to be played on third-party players, if record labels would agree to drop the technology. On January 14, , Jobs announced in an internal memo that he would be taking a six-month medical leave of absence from Apple until the end of June and would spend the time focusing on his health.
In the email, Jobs stated that "the curiosity over my personal health continues to be a distraction not only for me and my family, but everyone else at Apple as well", and explained that the break would allow the company "to focus on delivering extraordinary products". After years of speculation and multiple rumored "leaks", Apple unveiled a large screen, tablet-like media device known as the iPad on January 27, The iPad ran the same touch-based operating system as the iPhone , and all iPhone apps were compatible with the iPad.
This gave the iPad a large app catalog on launch, though having very little development time before the release. Later that year on April 3, , the iPad was launched in the US. It sold more than , units on its first day, and , by the end of the first week. In June , Apple released the iPhone 4 ,   which introduced video calling using FaceTime , multitasking , and a new uninsulated stainless steel design that acted as the phone's antenna.
Later that year, Apple again refreshed its iPod line of MP3 players by introducing a multi-touch iPod Nano , an iPod Touch with FaceTime , and an iPod Shuffle that brought back the clickwheel buttons of earlier generations. On January 17, , Jobs announced in an internal Apple memo that he would take another medical leave of absence for an indefinite period to allow him to focus on his health. Chief Operating Officer Tim Cook assumed Jobs's day-to-day operations at Apple, although Jobs would still remain "involved in major strategic decisions".
Apple did not have a chairman at the time  and instead had two co-lead directors, Andrea Jung and Arthur D. Levinson ,  who continued with those titles until Levinson replaced Jobs as chairman of the board in November after Jobs' death. On October 5, , Steve Jobs died, marking the end of an era for Apple. From to , Apple released the iPhone 4S   and iPhone 5 ,   which featured improved cameras, an intelligent software assistant named Siri , and cloud-synced data with iCloud; the third and fourth generation iPads, which featured Retina displays ;    and the iPad Mini , which featured a 7.
This beat the non-inflation-adjusted record for market capitalization previously set by Microsoft in In May , the company confirmed its intent to acquire Dr. Iovine believed that Beats had always "belonged" with Apple, as the company modeled itself after Apple's "unmatched ability to marry culture and technology.
During a press event on September 9, , Apple introduced a smartwatch, the Apple Watch. In January , it was announced that one billion Apple devices were in active use worldwide. On June 6, , Fortune released Fortune , their list of companies ranked on revenue generation. In the trailing fiscal year , Apple appeared on the list as the top tech company.
In November , Apple announced it was branching out into original scripted programming: a drama series starring Jennifer Aniston and Reese Witherspoon , and a reboot of the anthology series Amazing Stories with Steven Spielberg. During its annual WWDC keynote speech on June 22, , Apple announced it would move away from Intel processors, and the Mac would transition to processors developed in-house. Macintosh, commonly known as Mac, is Apple's line of personal computers that use the company's proprietary macOS operating system.
Personal computers were Apple's original business line, but as of the end of [update] they account for only about 10 percent of the company's revenue. The company is in the process of switching Mac computers from Intel processors to Apple silicon , a custom-designed system on a chip platform. As of March [update] , there are six Macintosh computer families in production:.
The company also develops several pieces of software that are included in the purchase price of a Mac, including the Safari web browser, the iMovie video editor, the GarageBand audio editor and the iWork productivity suite. Additionally, the company sells several professional software applications including the Final Cut Pro video editor, Motion for video animations, the Logic Pro audio editor, MainStage for live audio production, and Compressor for media compression and encoding.
Since then, Apple has annually released new iPhone models and iOS updates. The iPhone has a user interface built around a multi-touch screen, which at the time of its introduction was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry.
The device has been credited with popularizing the smartphone and slate form factor , and with creating a large market for smartphone apps, or " app economy ". The iPhone has generated large profits for the company, and is credited with helping to make Apple one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies.
As of January [update] , 33 iPhone models have been produced, with five smartphone families in production:. The first-generation iPad was announced on January 27, The iPad took the multi-touch user interface first introduced in the iPhone, and adapted it to a larger screen, marked for interaction with multimedia formats including newspapers, books, photos, videos, music, documents, video games, and most existing iPhone apps. Earlier generations of the iPad used the same iOS operating system as the company's smartphones before being split off in As of September , [update] Apple has sold more than million iPads, though sales peaked in In recent years, Apple has started offering more powerful versions of the device, with the current iPad Pro sharing the same Apple silicon as Macintosh computers, along with a smaller version of the device called iPad mini , and an upgraded version called iPad Air.
As of January [update] , there are four iPad families in production:. Apple also makes several other products that it categorizes as "Wearables, Home and Accessories. According to Steve Jobs, the company's name was inspired by his visit to an apple farm while on a fruitarian diet. Jobs thought the name "Apple" was "fun, spirited and not intimidating".
It was almost immediately replaced by Rob Janoff 's "rainbow Apple", the now-familiar rainbow-colored silhouette of an apple with a bite taken out of it. Janoff presented Jobs with several different monochromatic themes for the "bitten" logo, and Jobs immediately took a liking to it.
However, Jobs insisted that the logo be colorized to humanize the company. On August 27,  the year following the introduction of the iMac G3 , Apple officially dropped the rainbow scheme and began to use monochromatic logos nearly identical in shape to the previous rainbow incarnation. An Aqua -themed version of the monochrome logo was used from to , and a glass-themed version was used from to This resulted in a series of lawsuits and tension between the two companies.
These issues ended with the settling of their lawsuit in Apple's first slogan, " Byte into an Apple", was coined in the late s. From the introduction of the Macintosh in , with the Super Bowl advertisement to the more modern Get a Mac adverts, Apple has been recognized for its efforts towards effective advertising and marketing for its products. However, claims made by later campaigns were criticized ,  particularly the Power Mac ads. Apple customers gained a reputation for devotion and loyalty early in the company's history.
In , BYTE stated that: . There are two kinds of people in the world: people who say Apple isn't just a company, it's a cause; and people who say Apple isn't a cause, it's just a company. Both groups are right. Nature has suspended the principle of noncontradiction where Apple is concerned. Apple is more than just a company because its founding has some of the qualities of myth Apple is two guys in a garage undertaking the mission of bringing computing power, once reserved for big corporations, to ordinary individuals with ordinary budgets.
The company's growth from two guys to a billion-dollar corporation exemplifies the American Dream. Apple evangelists were actively engaged by the company at one time, but this was after the phenomenon had already been firmly established. Apple evangelist Guy Kawasaki has called the brand fanaticism "something that was stumbled upon,"  while Ive explained in that "People have an incredibly personal relationship" with Apple's products.
Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in , and in the world from to The New York Times in stated that "Apple above all else is a marketing company". It was the marketing company of the decade. The research indicated that this correlation could stem from the fact that on average Apple Inc.
In response to a query about the devotion of loyal Apple consumers, Jonathan Ive responded:. What people are responding to is much bigger than the object. They are responding to something rare—a group of people who do more than simply make something work, they make the very best products they possibly can. It's a demonstration against thoughtlessness and carelessness.
As of January , [update] there are 1. The building opened in April and houses more than 12, employees. Apple co-founder Steve Jobs wanted Apple Park to look less like a business park and more like a nature refuge, and personally appeared before the Cupertino City Council in June to make the proposal, in his final public appearance before his death.
Apple also operates from the Apple Campus also known by its address, 1 Infinite Loop , a grouping of six buildings in Cupertino that total , square feet 79, m 2 located about 1 mile 1. The buildings, located at 1—6 Infinite Loop , are arranged in a circular pattern around a central green space , in a design that has been compared to that of a university. In addition to Apple Park and the Apple Campus, Apple occupies an additional thirty office buildings scattered throughout the city of Cupertino, including three buildings that also served as prior headquarters: "Stephens Creek Three" — , Bandley One" — , and "Mariani One" — Apple has two campuses near Austin, Texas: a ,square-foot 20, m 2 campus opened in houses engineers who work on Apple silicon  and a 1.
The company, also has several other locations in Boulder, Colo. The first Apple Stores were originally opened as two locations in May by then- CEO Steve Jobs,  after years of attempting but failing store-within-a-store concepts. In addition to purchasing products, consumers can get advice and help from "Creative Pros" — individuals with specialized knowledge of creative arts; get product support in a tree-lined Genius Grove; and attend sessions, conferences and community events,   with Ahrendts commenting that the goal is to make Apple Stores into "town squares", a place where people naturally meet up and spend time.
Many Apple Stores are located inside shopping malls, but Apple has built several stand-alone "flagship" stores in high-profile locations. Despite the stores being closed, hourly workers continue to be paid. Workers across the company are allowed to work remotely if their jobs permit it. Apple is one of several highly successful companies founded in the s that bucked the traditional notions of corporate culture.
Jobs often walked around the office barefoot even after Apple became a Fortune company. By the time of the "" television advertisement, Apple's informal culture had become a key trait that differentiated it from its competitors.
As the company has grown and been led by a series of differently opinionated chief executives, it has arguably lost some of its original character. Nonetheless, it has maintained a reputation for fostering individuality and excellence that reliably attracts talented workers, particularly after Jobs returned to the company. Numerous Apple employees have stated that projects without Jobs's involvement often took longer than projects with it.
To recognize the best of its employees, Apple created the Apple Fellows program which awards individuals who make extraordinary technical or leadership contributions to personal computing while at the company. At Apple, employees are intended to be specialists who are not exposed to functions outside their area of expertise. Jobs saw this as a means of having "best-in-class" employees in every role. For instance, Ron Johnson —Senior Vice President of Retail Operations until November 1, —was responsible for site selection, in-store service, and store layout, yet had no control of the inventory in his stores.
This was done by Tim Cook, who had a background in supply-chain management. Each project has a "directly responsible individual" or "DRI" in Apple jargon. The company typically grants stock options to executives every other year. In , Apple had , full-time employees.
This increased to , full-time employees the next year, a notable hiring decrease, largely due to its first revenue decline. Apple does not specify how many of its employees work in retail, though its SEC filing put the number at approximately half of its employee base.
Apple has a strong culture of corporate secrecy , and has an anti- leak Global Security team that recruits from the National Security Agency , the Federal Bureau of Investigation , and the United States Secret Service. In December , Glassdoor said Apple was the 48th best place to work, having originally entered at rank 19 in , peaking at rank 10 in , and falling down the ranks in subsequent years. An editorial article in The Verge in September by technology journalist Thomas Ricker explored some of the public's perceived lack of innovation at Apple in recent years, specifically stating that Samsung has "matched and even surpassed Apple in terms of smartphone industrial design" and citing the belief that Apple is incapable of producing another breakthrough moment in technology with its products.
He goes on to write that the criticism focuses on individual pieces of hardware rather than the ecosystem as a whole, stating "Yes, iteration is boring. But it's also how Apple does business. He acknowledges that people are wishing for the "excitement of revolution", but argues that people want "the comfort that comes with harmony". Furthermore, he writes that "a device is only the starting point of an experience that will ultimately be ruled by the ecosystem in which it was spawned", referring to how decent hardware products can still fail without a proper ecosystem specifically mentioning that Walkman did not have an ecosystem to keep users from leaving once something better came along , but how Apple devices in different hardware segments are able to communicate and cooperate through the iCloud cloud service with features including Universal Clipboard in which text copied on one device can be pasted on a different device as well as inter-connected device functionality including Auto Unlock in which an Apple Watch can unlock a Mac in close proximity.
He argues that Apple's ecosystem is its greatest innovation. The Wall Street Journal reported in June that Apple's increased reliance on Siri , its virtual personal assistant , has raised questions about how much Apple can actually accomplish in terms of functionality. Whereas Google and Amazon make use of big data and analyze customer information to personalize results, Apple has a strong pro-privacy stance , intentionally not retaining user data.
The report further claims that development on Siri has suffered due to team members and executives leaving the company for competitors, a lack of ambitious goals, and shifting strategies. Though switching Siri's functions to machine learning and algorithms , which dramatically cut its error rate, the company reportedly still failed to anticipate the popularity of Amazon's Echo , which features the Alexa personal assistant.
Improvements to Siri stalled, executives clashed, and there were disagreements over the restrictions imposed on third-party app interactions. While Apple acquired an England-based startup specializing in conversational assistants, Google's Assistant had already become capable of helping users select Wi-Fi networks by voice, and Siri was lagging in functionality. The former had experienced a severe security vulnerability, in which Macs running the then-latest macOS High Sierra software were vulnerable to a bug that let anyone gain administrator privileges by entering "root" as the username in system prompts, leaving the password field empty and twice clicking "unlock", gaining full access.
Not to say that things didn't go wrong under his watch, but product announcements and launches felt a lot tighter for sure, as did the overall quality of what Apple was releasing. The company's manufacturing, procurement, and logistics enable it to execute massive product launches without having to maintain large, profit-sapping inventories. In , Apple's profit margins were 40 percent, compared with between 10 and 20 percent for most other hardware companies.
Cook's catchphrase to describe his focus on the company's operational arm is: "Nobody wants to buy sour milk". We're thinking about, where are the opportunities across the U. As of , Apple uses components from 43 countries. During the Mac's early history Apple generally refused to adopt prevailing industry standards for hardware, instead creating their own.
Apple has gradually expanded its efforts in getting its products into the Indian market. In July , during a conference call with investors, CEO Tim Cook said that he "[loves] India", but that Apple saw larger opportunities outside the region. The company advertised its products as being made in America until the late s; however, as a result of outsourcing initiatives in the s, almost all of its manufacturing is now handled abroad.
According to a report by The New York Times , Apple insiders "believe the vast scale of overseas factories, as well as the flexibility, diligence and industrial skills of foreign workers, have so outpaced their American counterparts that " Made in the USA " is no longer a viable option for most Apple products". In , one complex of factories in Shenzhen , China that assembled the iPod and other items had over , workers living and working within it.
A little over half of the workers' earnings was required to pay for rent and food from the company. Apple immediately launched an investigation after the media report, and worked with their manufacturers to ensure acceptable working conditions. Yearly progress reports have been published since A team from Apple is independently evaluating the steps they are taking to address these tragic events and we will continue our ongoing inspections of the facilities where our products are made.
The statement was released after the results from the company's probe into its suppliers' labor practices were published in early Foxconn was not specifically named in the report, but Apple identified a series of serious labor violations of labor laws, including Apple's own rules, and some child labor existed in a number of factories. Also in , workers in China planned to sue iPhone contractors over poisoning by a cleaner used to clean LCD screens.
One worker claimed that he and his coworkers had not been informed of possible occupational illnesses. A BBC investigation found excessive hours and other problems persisted, despite Apple's promise to reform factory practice after the Foxconn suicides. The Pegatron factory was once again the subject of review, as reporters gained access to the working conditions inside through recruitment as employees.
While the BBC maintained that the experiences of its reporters showed that labor violations were continuing since , Apple publicly disagreed with the BBC and stated: "We are aware of no other company doing as much as Apple to ensure fair and safe working conditions". In December , the Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights published a report which documented inhumane conditions for the 15, workers at a Zhen Ding Technology factory in Shenzhen, China, which serves as a major supplier of circuit boards for Apple's iPhone and iPad.
According to the report, workers are pressured into hour work weeks which leaves them so exhausted that they often sleep during lunch breaks. They are also made to reside in "primitive, dark and filthy dorms" where they sleep "on plywood, with six to ten workers in each crowded room. In , there were reports stating that some of Foxconn's managers had used rejected parts to build iPhones and that Apple was investigating the issue.
As of June 6, [update] , Apple's solar farms in California and Nevada have been declared to provide Apple will use the methane emissions to generate electricity. In , Climate Counts , a nonprofit organization dedicated to directing consumers toward the greenest companies, gave Apple a score of 52 points out of a possible , which puts Apple in their top category "Striding". Each product receives a Gold, Silver, or Bronze rank depending on its efficiency and sustainability.
Although Apple's data centers recycle water 35 times,  the increased activity in retail, corporate and data centers also increase the amount of water use to million US gal 2. Lisa P. Another partnership announced is with the World Wildlife Fund to preserve up to 1,, acres 4, km 2 of forests in China. Featured was the company's installation of a 40 MW solar power plant in the Sichuan province of China that was tailor-made to coexist with the indigenous yaks that eat hay produced on the land, by raising the panels to be several feet off of the ground so the yaks and their feed would be unharmed grazing beneath the array.
This installation alone compensates for more than all of the energy used in Apple's Stores and Offices in the whole of China, negating the company's energy carbon footprint in the country. Liam was introduced to the world, an advanced robotic disassembler and sorter designed by Apple Engineers in California specifically for recycling outdated or broken iPhones. Reuses and recycles parts from traded in products. Apple announced on August 16, , that Lens Technology, one of its major suppliers in China, has committed to power all its glass production for Apple with percent renewable energy by The commitment is a large step in Apple's efforts to help manufacturers lower their carbon footprint in China.
The standard, which started in January , certifies that all manufacturing waste is reused , recycled , composted , or converted into energy when necessary. Since the program began, nearly, , metric tons of waste have been diverted from landfills. On July 21, , Apple announced its plan to become carbon neutral across its entire business, manufacturing supply chain, and product life cycle by In the next 10 years, Apple will try to lower emissions with a series of innovative actions, including: low carbon product design, expanding energy efficiency, renewable energy, process and material innovations, and carbon removal.
Following further campaigns by Greenpeace,  in , Apple became the first electronics manufacturer to fully eliminate all polyvinyl chloride PVC and brominated flame retardants BFRs in its complete product line. Allowing consumers to make informed purchasing decisions on the products they offer for sale.
In November , Apple was featured in Greenpeace's Guide to Greener Electronics, which ranks electronics manufacturers on sustainability, climate and energy policy, and how "green" their products are. The company ranked fourth of fifteen electronics companies moving up five places from the previous year with a score of 4. However, the guide criticizes Apple on the Energy criteria for not seeking external verification of its greenhouse gas emissions data and for not setting out any targets to reduce emissions.
The green bond proceeds are dedicated to the financing of environmental projects. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue, the world's largest technology company by total assets ,  and the world's second-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung. In its fiscal year ending in September , Apple Inc. As of August 3, [update] , Apple was the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization. On August 2, , Apple became the first publicly traded U.
Apple has created subsidiaries in low-tax places such as Ireland , the Netherlands , Luxembourg , and the British Virgin Islands to cut the taxes it pays around the world. According to The New York Times, in the s Apple was among the first tech companies to designate overseas salespeople in high-tax countries in a manner that allowed the company to sell on behalf of low-tax subsidiaries on other continents, sidestepping income taxes.
In the late s, Apple was a pioneer of an accounting technique known as the " Double Irish with a Dutch sandwich ," which reduces taxes by routing profits through Irish subsidiaries and the Netherlands and then to the Caribbean. British Conservative Party Member of Parliament Charlie Elphicke published research on October 30, ,  which showed that some multinational companies, including Apple Inc. He followed this research by calling on the Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne to force these multinationals, which also included Google and The Coca-Cola Company , to state the effective rate of tax they pay on their UK revenues.
Elphicke also said that government contracts should be withheld from multinationals who do not pay their fair share of UK tax. Under U. It was not until that Irish economists could definitively prove that the growth was due to Apple restructuring its controversial double Irish subsidiaries Apple Sales International , which Apple converted into a new Irish capital allowances for intangible assets tax scheme expires in January On August 30, , after a two-year investigation , the EU Competition Commissioner concluded Apple received "illegal state aid" from Ireland.
As of October 26, [update] the following individuals sit on the board of Apple Inc. As of March 16, [update] the management of Apple Inc. The role of chairman of the Board has not always been in use; notably, between to , and to Apple has been a participant in various legal proceedings and claims since it began operation. Some litigation examples include Apple v. Samsung , Apple v. Microsoft , Motorola Mobility v. Apple Computer. Apple has also had to defend itself against charges on numerous occasions of violating intellectual property rights.
Most have been dismissed in the courts as shell companies known as patent trolls , with no evidence of actual use of patents in question. Apple has a notable pro-privacy stance, actively making privacy-conscious features and settings part of its conferences, promotional campaigns, and public image. With Apple's release of an update to iOS 14 , Apple required all developers of iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch applications to directly ask iPhone users permission to track them.
The feature, titled "App Tracking Transparency", received heavy criticism from Facebook, whose primary business model revolves around the tracking of users' data and sharing such data with advertisers so users can see more relevant ads, a technique commonly known as targeted advertising. Despite Facebook's measures, including purchasing full-page newspaper advertisements protesting App Tracking Transparency, Apple released the update in mid-spring However, Apple aids law enforcement in criminal investigations by providing iCloud backups of users' devices,    and the company's commitment to privacy has been questioned by its efforts to promote biometric authentication technology in its newer iPhone models, which don't have the same level of constitutional privacy as a passcode in the United States.
Prior to the release of iOS 15 , Apple announced new efforts at combating child sexual abuse material on iOS and Mac platforms. Parents of minor iMessage users can now be alerted if their child sends or receives nude photographs. Additionally, on-device hashing would take place on media destined for upload to iCloud, and hashes would be compared to a list of known abusive images provided by law enforcement; if enough matches were found, Apple would be alerted and authorities informed.
The new features received praise from law enforcement and victims rights advocates, however privacy advocates, including the Electronic Frontier Foundation , condemned the new features as invasive and highly prone to abuse by authoritarian governments. Apple contributes financially to fundraisers in times of natural disasters.
Apple has been criticized for alleged unethical business practices such as anti-competitive behavior , rash litigation,  dubious tax tactics, production methods involving the use of sweatshop labor,   customer service issues involving allegedly misleading warranties and insufficient data security , and its products' environmental footprint. Apple has also received criticism for its willingness to work and conduct business with nations such as China and Russia, engaging in practices that have been criticized by human rights groups.
Apple's issues regarding music over the years include those with the European Union regarding iTunes,  trouble over updating the Spotify app on Apple devices  and collusion with record labels. The recall affected , units, and Apple was criticized for the long waiting periods consumers experienced, sometimes extending up to 3 weeks for replacements to arrive; the company also did not provide alternative replacements or repair options.
In July , following a campaign by the " right to repair " movement, challenging Apple's tech repair restrictions on devices, the FTC held a workshop to establish the framework of a future nationwide Right to Repair rule. The movement argues Apple is preventing consumers from legitimately fixing their devices at local repair shops which is having a negative impact on consumers.
AGCM stated that Apple's claims of the iPhone's water resistance weren't true as the phones could only resist water up to 4 meters deep in ideal laboratory conditions and not in regular circumstances. The authority added that Apple provided no assistance to customers with water-damaged phones, which it said constituted an aggressive trade practice. Ireland's Data Protection Commission also launched a privacy investigation to examine whether Apple complied with the EU's GDPR law following an investigation into how the company processes personal data with targeted ads on its platform.
In December , a report found that the iPhone 11 Pro continues tracking location and collecting user data even after users have disabled location services. In response, an Apple engineer said the Location Services icon "appears for system services that do not have a switch in settings. According to published reports by Bloomberg News on March 30, , Apple turned over data such as phone numbers, physical addresses, and IP addresses to hackers posing as law enforcement officials using forged documents.
The law enforcement requests sometimes included forged signatures of real or fictional officials. When asked about the allegations, an Apple representative referred the reporter to a section of the company policy for law enforcement guidelines, which stated, "We review every data request for legal sufficiency and use advanced systems and processes to validate law enforcement requests and detect abuse.
The United States Department of Justice also began a review of Big Tech firms to establish whether they could be unlawfully stifling competition in a broad antitrust probe in The arrangement created aligned prices for Apple products such as iPads and personal computers for about half the French retail market.
According to the French regulators, the abuses occurred between and but were first discovered after a complaint by an independent reseller, eBizcuss, in The suits come after both Apple and Google blocked the game after it introduced a direct payment system, effectively shutting out the tech titans from collecting fees. Facebook had, however, stated that the company will not participate directly with the lawsuit, although did commit to helping with the discovery of evidence relating to the trial of In the months prior to their agreement, Facebook had been dealing with feuds against Apple relating to the prices of paid apps as well as privacy rule changes.
It said that the policy is based on the guidelines of the United Nations on business and human rights, in early September In , Apple complied with a request by the Chinese government to ban a Quran app from its devices and platforms. The request occurred in the context of the Chinese government's ongoing mass repression of Muslims, particularly Uyghurs, in Xinjiang, which some have labeled a genocide.
In December , The Information reported that CEO Tim Cook had negotiated in a five-year agreement with the Chinese government, motivated in part to allay regulatory issues that had harmed the company's business in China. In September , Apple removed an app from its App Store created by Alexei Navalny meant to coordinate protest voting during the Russian legislative election.
The Russian government had threatened to arrest individual Apple employees working in the country unless Apple complied. In January , Ericsson sued Apple over payment of royalty of 5G technology. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American multinational technology company. Traded as. Cupertino, California. Operating income.
Net income. Berkshire Hathaway 5. Main article: History of Apple Inc. See also: History of Apple Inc. See also: Timeline of Apple Inc. Main article: Macintosh. Main article: iPhone. Main article: iPad. See also: Typography of Apple Inc. For the programming language, see Apple Logo. First Apple logo — . First official logo — . Third logo — .
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Originally named Apple Computer Inc. The entrance of other players in the consumer electronics market meant that Apple is getting stiffer competition, especially since these competitors are churning out smartphones and tablets that are significantly lower in price. There is no denying, however, that the best product strategy that Apple employs is coming up with very good products.
By continuing to hold on to high standards of quality , Apple refuses to get on the bandwagon that most other device makers are using, where they pack their products chock-full of features that, while they may be impressively advanced, actually end up making operating the device actually more complicated and not at all user-friendly. Packaging is certainly not an area where Apple is lacking. It is known for being a company that provides clean and simple, yet functional packaging to its products.
More than being flashy, it tends to boast more of a utilitarian aesthetic, but without coming across as boring or plain. This means that it focuses on selected products and continues enhancing them, instead of branching out to create other products within the same category. If you look at the numbers, it is true that other companies, such as Samsung, are showing higher figures when it comes to unit sales.
They are starting to occupy a larger share of the market. But this does not worry Apple. Instead, it continues to focus on its loyal customers and, despite occupying a smaller percentage of the market, is able to position itself as a premium brand and a maker and provider of top quality products.
As such, Samsung was able to eat up a huge chunk of the market because of its production of cheap and low-end gadgets. That market is not really what Apple is aiming for, and it is comfortable with the market it has right now. Market trends are constantly changing, and demands are certainly increasing. This explains the product refreshes and updates that are released on a schedule set by Apple.
Clearly, this means that the latest iPhone, the iPhone 6 Plus, is a much improved version of the first generation iPhone, or even the previously released iPhone 6. These changes put the Apple product development team in a good light, particularly in the eyes of Apple users, since it implies a commitment on their part of seeking continuous improvement for their product offerings.
It also effectively attracts new users, thereby increasing the market share of Apple. Having total control means that Apple users are guaranteed to have the latest version of the operating system, with updates readily and immediately made available to Apple users. The strategy employed by Apple in its product development largely depends on what the product is. Compared to when Apple was founded and started its operations, there are now a lot more consumer electronics companies and mobile phone manufacturers that are attempting to compete with Apple.
However, out of this sea of competitors, there are only a few companies that are considered to be major threats or those that provide serious competition. Granted, some of these companies do not really pose a serious threat to Apple, not like Samsung and Google. Case in point: Google is seen as the biggest competitor of Apple when it comes to operating systems and software development.
Apple does, too, but it does not stop there. It also conducts SWOT analysis of the products of its competitors. Doing a product SWOT on your own products will not really give you the whole picture. It only gives you one angle: yours. What makes their product better?
What makes yours the best? This practice has certainly paid off for Apple, particularly when it was starting to release new products into the market. They were able to come out with products that are unique and innovative. For example, in the past, phones were bulky and on the heavy side. This was seen by Apple as a weakness, so it zeroed in on that and developed sleeker, thinner, and lighter mobile phone units. Usually, a business would study the market and identify the segments that it will specifically target, and that will figure greatly in its overall product development and strategy.
However, Apple does things differently. Apple is primarily product-driven in its approach, in that it develops the product first, and then seeking out the market for it. This worked thanks, in large part, to the high quality and unique products that Apple has churned out. It did not take long for Apple to become established as a global market.
Apple markets its products to cater to anyone and everyone who is looking for great value and high quality — all over the world. You will find Apple stores and outlets in major areas of the world, a sure sign that Apple is targeting customers globally.
As mentioned earlier, Apple adapts a product-driven attitude. It will now be up to Apple, once the product has finished development, to make the market realize that it wants and needs the product that it has to offer. After all, according to Steve Jobs , the customer does not know what he wants. The updates and upgraded versions of products that Apple has been doing in recent years is the result of market surveys that it conducted, asking customers what products they liked, or what specific features they thought were excellent or outstanding.
The computing branch of Apple makes heavy use of the music industry to boost its presence and, consequently, its sales. This has been described as the Halo Effect of the Apple brand, and a good example would be with regards to iTunes. It all started with the iPod, which started out as a simple music player. The features that users loved using on iPod and iTunes were craftily integrated in other Apple products, so that others who liked them would not hesitate to try other Apple products with similar offerings.
The result is a customer experience that has become common across different Apple products. Customers these days are smarter, looking at the overall experience a product gives them, instead of isolated moments and fleeting flashes. Their products offer that sense of control, by integrating concepts of simplicity and convenience.
Take note of the long queues or lines of prospective Apple product buyers that reach all the way down across the street, or the long lists of preorders, whenever a new Apple product is due for release. It takes a lot of dedication and commitment to be one of those people lining up, which is pretty much like being in an intimate relationship. In the same way, the Apple brand also puts emphasis on customer experience by enhancing that sense of community among Apple users.
Apple users are inclined to be drawn towards other Apple users, because they somehow get a sense of kinship just by becoming users of the same product, or of different products but belonging within the same product line of the Apple brand. Apple was smart enough to play on the strong brand preference that customers tend to develop when they have tried and tested a specific product. Users will not mind developing an attachment or loyalty to a brand or a product as long as it provides what they are looking for, and by ensuring that this is the case, Apple is able to keep its customers, and keep them coming back.
This halo strategy is also seen in how Apple targets its markets. Apple Performa Plus Display. Apple Color Printer. LaserWriter Pro Macintosh Color Classic. LaserWriter Select Apple Design Powered Speakers. Personal LaserWriter Portable StyleWriter. Macintosh LC Apple AudioVision 14 Display. Macintosh Color Classic II. PowerBook Duo PowerBook Duo c.
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Server sent disconnect also be used welcome screen, and corporate teams to failures for root" possible in this produced by an OpenSSH or. Log in Social over a WiFi network. An attacker could cleaning up your update system in several hours to.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company that specializes in consumer electronics, software and online services. Hardware, software, and services, working together as one. · Mac · iPad · iPhone · Apple Watch · Apple TV. Discover the innovative world of Apple and shop everything iPhone, iPad, Apple Watch, Mac, and Apple TV, plus explore accessories, entertainment.